Pharmacological Management in Postoperative pain management

Opioids Opioid analgesics are one of the cornerstone options for postoperative pain treatments with the advantage of no analgesic ceiling effects theoretically, but the analgesic efficacy of opioids is typically limited by the development of tolerance or opioid-related side effects realistically. The principle of opioid administration is to obtain the maximum analgesia without intolerable adverse…

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ANAPHYLAXIS DURING ANAETHESIA

Anaphylaxis Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during anaesthesia are rare, but potentially life-threatening allergic events. The worst manifestations are cardiovascular collapse, bronchospasm and laryngeal oedema. The European Academy of Allergy and Immunology (EAACI) redefined anaphylaxis as a severe, life-threatening, generalized, or systemic hypersensitivity reaction, sub-divided into ‘allergic’ and ‘non-allergic’ reactions. Anaphylaxis is not a homogeneous process:…

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